We are all supposed to be perfectly rational, supercomputers that can do a discounted cash flow analysis on every investment idea we come across. If this is not enough, we are also supposed to be able to compare all investment options at the same time, before making a decision.

This is what most ivory tower professors would have us believe (except one ). Ofcourse this does a lot of disservice to a budding investor, who feels stupid when he or she lets emotions creep into the decision process.

I have invested for around 15 years now and in the countless investors I have followed, I have yet to come across anyone who comes close to this mythical investor. For the ordinary investor like me, I find it far more useful to acknowledge my irrationality and learn to work with it. Although there are no universal rules to managing emotions when investing, let me share my experiences as some would definitely be instructive.

Let’s start with a list of some commonly felt emotions and their impact –


Think back to August – Oct 2013. Rupee dropped close to 71 to a dollar. Current account deficit was around 5% and at the risk of expanding further. The Indian government led by congress was in a state of paralysis. The net effect – The stock market dropped close to 10%. The same story had occurred in 2003, 2008-09 and 2011.

Inspite of the economy and market coming back after a few years in the past, a majority of the commentators and investors decided to stay away from the market. This is even more surprising considering the fact that Mid caps and small caps were selling at 5-6 year lows and some highly profitable and growing companies were available at decent valuations.

My thinking: It is not that I am immune to fear and pessimism. I felt equal depressed about the state of affairs and angry with the government. However, during such times I go by my sense of history (past record of the stock market) and valuations. If the company is doing well and available at decent valuations, I will buy the stock without worrying about when I will be proven right. How does it matter if the stock doubles in one year or the end of year three?


I don’t have to go far on this one. Look around now – after almost five years, the small investor is now coming back. We have mutual funds advertising the last one year results and people are now getting excited about equity after a 55% rise from the bottom.

This is a very predictable pattern. Gold increased by 19% CAGR from 2001-2011 and everyone was bullish about gold.


Indians, with a perennial love for gold, found one more reason to buy it and anything associated with gold such as jewelry companies got swept up in the same euphoria.

Gold is down 25% now and so are gold related companies. As far as I know, I am not seeing analysts recommending gold or gold related companies now.


So the emotion of greed is obvious – once we see others make money, it is easy to be envious and follow the crowd. The result is predictable too – The last people to join the herd also lose the most money.

My thinking: I have a standard thumb rule. Do not buy something which almost everyone is recommending. If I do buy into something which is the current flavor of the market, I try to move slowly into it so that I don’t lose much if the tide turns. In addition to that, I won’t buy something I don’t understand. For example – I was never able to understand what the true free cash flow for most gold companies is (except titan industries), considering all their profits are generally eaten up by inventory. As a result, I just stayed away from them.

Love and security

Now this is not an emotion, one associates with money and investing. I did not consider it relevant for a long time, but as I think about gold and real estate, I can see the role of these two key emotions

I first realized the importance of love and security as an investment criteria when my mother tried to convince me to buy gold to secure the future of the family. I tried to explain that equities give a better return, but soon realized that there was no way I could convince her. Of course, she decided to take matters in her own hands – she went and bought some gold for the family and said that that was her way of providing security to the family 🙂

The effect of emotional attachment is very high with gold – When it goes up, people justify its purchase based on the price rise. If it goes down, the justification changes to it being undervalued or being a hedge against catastrophe or any other reason you can think of.

If you still don’t agree with me – go to your spouse or any other member of you family and suggest the following: Please hand me your gold, I will sell it and invest it in a higher return instrument. In X number of years from now, you can buy more gold than what you have now. I have tried it and I am scared to use the two words ‘gold and sell’ again in the same sentence 🙂


If you think, love and security alone explains the fascination for gold – think again. I always found it irrational to buy gold or even real estate (beyond your housing need) if all that you are looking for is high returns.

This thinking changed when my family and in-laws felt that I had finally arrived in life when I bought my own flat with a big loan and essentially signed my life to the housing finance company (read EMI!). I never got any praise for buying an asian paints or any other long term compounder , whereas the flat was a concrete evidence (no pun intended) that I was doing something right in life

There is a tangible quality to both gold and real estate. You can see it, feel it and even flaunt it . In the past one could look and touch the stock certificates, but now with demat accounts what are you going to show others?

Imagine this fictious dialogue

Mom to her friend: My son has finally arrived in life! he bought a 1000 sqft flat in XYZ location. We are going to grah pravesh (house warming). Why don’t you join us? <so that she can show the house and feel proud>


Mom to friend: My son bought 1000 shares of asian paints. Let me show you his demat account! you know this company has a sustainable ……… will this dialogue ever happen!!

It’s the same with gold. Your wife or mother can wear the gold and in a lot of cases this serves to signal that the family or husband/ son is wealthy. So gold and real estate actually help in feeling secure or in displaying wealth. It is incidental that they earn some return too.

These emotions sometimes creep into stocks too. At the height of a bubble, investors want to invest in the hottest companies so that they can show their friends and colleagues how smart they are.

My thinking: In my own case, I have usually not felt the need to flaunt (or so I believe). At the same time, I try hard to avoid envy, which causes one to do stupid things such as chase the latest investment fad or buy stuff to show off.

There are only a two exceptions to the above rule in my case – The first one is that the emotional value of your own home is high, so it don’t look at it as a financial decision, but something which makes my family feel secure. The second one is that when my wife wants to buy jewelry I look at it as an expense to keep her happy

The driver

Volatility in prices is not an emotion in itself, but a driver of a lot of emotions we have been talking about. When stock prices crash, we can see that investors are overcome by fear, despair and in some cases complete disgust to the point of avoiding equities forever.

On the contrary if prices rise rapidly the reverse happens – we see greed and euphoria. These feelings are common to all investments, but as the volatility is high in stocks compared to other options, these emotions are amplified in the stock market.

I personally think that one of the reasons investors make higher returns in stocks compared to other options on average, is due to the higher volatility which tends to put off a lot of people. Investing in stocks is tough emotionally, no matter how long one does it. You go through periods of sickening drops and exhilarating spikes and it never gets easier, emotionally.

Take your pick

So it comes down to what one is looking for in their investments. If you want to flaunt your wealth or to feel warm and fuzzy, then go for real estate and gold. The returns could be good, if you have specialized skills in these asset classes, but then that is a different ball game.

If you want complete peace of mind – invest in Fixed deposits and sleep well. There is no harm in that!

If you are ready for a few sleepless nights, stomach churning drops in your networth (even if temporary) or sudden euphoric rise, and have nerves of steel to handle all of these emotions, then you will be rewarded with higher returns over the long term. That is equity investing

This brings me to a final anecdote –

I was discussing about expected returns of various types of assets such as real estate and stocks with a friend. I mentioned that one should expect anywhere between 15-18% from the stock market in the long run. To this, my friend replied that he ‘wanted’ nothing less than 20% per annum.

I asked my friend on why he ‘wanted’ these returns? Ofcourse he had no reason for it. It was just something he thought should be the case!

My reply was that like my kids, if you are wishing for something as they wish during Christmas from santaclaus, you should not hold yourself back. Why stop at 20%, why not ask for 100% – maybe your wish will come true!

We are still good friends, but don’t talk about investments any longer :). This is the final emotion a lot of uninformed investor suffer from – wishful thinking



I think the next 2-3 years are not going to be easy, just because we are in a bull market. A few of you who decided to invest when India was supposedly going down the drain, must be feeling good about it. It is fine to feel good about it, but one should not get carried away by it.

More noise
In a bear market, as we had in the last 3-4 years, almost no one spoke about the stock market except as a place to avoid. Unless you turned on one of the financial news channels, it was easy to avoid any talk about it.

The advantage of this comparative silence was that you could think investing without too much distraction. The situation has changed quite a bit in the last few months. We now have friends, colleagues and relatives, all getting excited about the market. If like me, your acquaintances know that you invest in the stock market, I am sure you must get badgered with tips for the top ten hot stocks which will double in 21 days – small caps especially.

In my case you can imagine the disappointment – recommending people to invest in 2013 when no one wanted to, and being cautious now when everyone and his dog thinks we are at the start of a multi-year bull run.

Feeling envy
It is easy to feel envy when you see others do better during such times. The media adds fuel to the fire by publishing the list of stocks which have gone by 50 or 100 times in the last 4-5 years. Ofcourse, they were silent when these stocks were starting the journey.

In addition, you now have friends and other investors boasting how they doubled their money in the last six months, by buying the hottest idea.

One can abandon his or her approach and start chasing such stocks which have worked well for others in the past. From personal experience, I can tell you that this never works out (atleast for me).

Unnecessary churn
As the market touches new high, I think some people get itchy to sell stocks which have given high returns and recycle them into new positions, which ‘appear’ to be cheap.

I am looking for new ideas too, but will not do it for the sake of ‘doing something’, unless I think it will add to the overall returns. If this means doing nothing for long periods of time – so be it.

Let me explain further – I currently have around 19-20 positions in my portfolio. I am constantly looking for new ideas. As I am close to fully invested, I will have to sell an existing idea, incur the brokerage and taxes (if any) and then buy the new position. The implication of this decision is that I expect this new idea which has been analyzed for a few weeks, will do better than an existing company which I have analyzed and followed for more than a year.

There are people who are smart enough to do this consistently – I am not one of them. I do not want to take these decisions lightly. If the time horizon is 2-3 years and more in my case, it is really important that I take a little more time to think through this decision.

Being patient is never easy
I have found bull markets to be far more difficult to handle than other times. For starters, it involves doing nothing for long stretches of time, when stocks are going up and you are missing out on easy money ( that the easy money is lost in the end is a different matter).

Let me ask a few rhetorical questions (which I keep asking myself too) – is it really important to have all the hottest stocks in your portfolio? Is it really necessary or even possible to have the highest possible returns at all times, if a lower rate of return at much lesser risk will meet your goals ? Is this investing or just showing off?

The main challenge we will face in the coming months and years is to keep our heads amidst the euphoria. It is very easy to get carried away and starting buying marginal companies showing profit and stock price momentum – I have done that a bit in the past and it has always come back to bite me.

Let me suggest a few activities to keep you busy while waiting for the right opportunity

–          Watch TV soaps, especially the family dramas. They have a lot of twist and turns too (or so I have heard)
–          Take up body building or weights. You will have chiseled body if the bull market turns out to be a 10 year one 🙂
–          Go for long walks and walk a little more every day. If this a long bull market, you may be walking the whole day
–          If you are single, go to parties and have fun. If you have been investing in the past and not partying, shame on you anyway – what a waste of youth!

For those of you who like me, cannot do any of the above – keep faith and hope. This too will pass. The skies will turn dark again, and they will be gloom and doom. You will get your chance then 🙂


How to reject a stock?

Is this a crazy idea? Why should you have a checklist to reject stocks?

You will generally find ten tips to select the next ten bagger, but not many write on how to reject stocks.

Let me first try to convince you why this a sound idea –

The problem of abundance
A typical well diversified portfolio tends to have 15-20 stocks (anything more does not reduce risk any further). Let’s assume that the holding period is 2-3 years per stock. So in effect one needs to find and replace 5-7 stocks per year in the portfolio.

Even if one assumes a much higher level of diversification, I cannot see a scenario where one is replacing more than 10-12 stocks per year (as an investor and not as a trader).

We have around 5000+ companies listed in the stock market and a selection of 10-12 stocks means that you will reject 4990 stocks (if you were able to have a look at all the companies each year). That is around a 99%+ rejection rate. Even if you were to play around with the number of stocks you can analyze each year and the number you end up selecting, I cannot envisage a scenario where you will reject less than 95% of the stocks you review.

If you are rejecting stocks most of the time, does it not make sense to have a checklist to make the process more efficient and robust?

Finally a corollary to my point –The main problem is that we are not limited by choice, but by time and effort.

Building the framework
To design a rejection checklist, it’s important to understand what we are looking for and identify factors which negate that.

At the risk of oversimplication, I would say a long term investor is looking at high rates of return for a long period of time. Putting it quantitavely, I would say that I am looking at a CAGR of 26% per annum for 3-5 years or longer if possible.

So what are some of the characteristics of a company which can deliver these kinds of returns?

–          The company operates in an industry with above average growth rate which means that the industry is growing atleast at 15%+ rates (higher than the GDP).
–          The company is able to earn a high rate of return on capital (atleast 15% or higher) for a long period of time (sustainable competitive advantage)
–          Company is led by a competent and ethical management
–          The company is selling at reasonable valuations

Easier to reject stocks
You must have noted that I have omitted a lot of factors which go into selecting a winning stock and that’s precisely my point. Selecting a profitable stock is a complicated Endeavour and one can write books on it and still not cover all the points needed to identify a profitable idea.

On the contrary if one inverts the idea and looks for an approach on how to loose money on stocks, the list becomes surprisingly small. This is also called the Carl Jacobi maxim on inversion

So let’s look at how we can select stocks to loose money
–          The company operates in an industry which is in a terminal decline (fixed line telephony) or is highly cyclical, commodity in nature and with very poor return on capital (metals, sugar, airlines etc)
–          The industry is subject to a lot of change (regulatory, competitive or technological) which causes several companies to fail or loose money due to sudden change in the competitive scenario (telecom, mining etc)
–          The company is managed by an unethical and incompetent management (do you need examples here?? – just look around )
–          The stock is purchased at high valuations in a cyclical industry right at the peak of the business cycle. To add insult to injury, the company is managed by an unethical and incompetent management. This combination of factors is guaranteed to loose atleast 50-60% of your capital if not more

That’s it! I think the above four factors will help you weed out 80% of the stocks in less than an hour

Is it comprehensive and works 100% of the time?
Of course, this list is not comprehensive. I can come up with a lot of additional points, but I can say that these broad criteria can be used to eliminate a lot of companies at the first glance.

Some of you may point out that you are aware of a company XYZ with above characteristics, which gave a 50% upside or has even been a multi-bagger.

My counter point is – Do you really want to search for a needle in a haystack when there are often gems lying around? If your idea of fun is to find that nugget of gold in a pile of manure, then welcome to my world. I have engaged in it often and the results are not great compared to the effort put in. In addition if you are not a full time investor, then it makes all the more sense to focus your limited time on good opportunities.

The benefit of my mistakes
The list I have shared is not something I have just dreamed up while sipping coffee. I did a small exercise of listing of my failures for the last 15+ years and found a few common threads among all of them. If I boil it down, it comes down to the four points listed above.

Now, I know some investors who are able to make good returns by investing in cyclical or commodity stocks. Some others are able to do well, even if the management is not great. However I am quite sure that a majority of investors cannot achieve superior results if they decide to ignore one or all of the four points listed above.

Let me make another bold claim – if you want to loose 90% of your money, buy a highly cyclical and commodity type company at high valuations at the peak of the business cycle and run by an incompetent and crooked management. You will be guaranteed this result. How do I know – I tried it a few times and have never failed to loose my shirt (and other garments!)